2009-12-30 03:25:16 UTC
Maulana Imamuddin Bangali followed the Muhammadyia tariqah. Imamuddin
was born in Hajipur, Noakhali but he was educated in Delhi under Shah
Abdul Aziz, son of Shah Waliullah. When Sayyid Ahmad Brelavi came to
Calcutta Imamuddin brought a large number of people from his village
to be initiated into Brelavi's tariqah.
Imamuddin went to Arabia with Brelavi and later took part in the
in Pakton country. While he was accompanying Brelavi to Jiddah their
ship stayed for a month in Mocha because the captain was from Mocha.
Imamuddin Bangali was arrested there because he took bath wearing
cloths while the local custom was to take bath naked in public ponds
and tanks. Later the Qazi of Mocha gave the group permission to take
bath in public wearing cloths (p90, "Saiyid Ahmad Shahid" by
Though from this story one may be tempted to take Mocha to be Massaua
on the Eritrean coast, this Mocha appears to be Al-Mukha north of Bab
el-Mandeb Strait in Yemen. This was the condition of Mocha about 18th
century. Parts of Yemen itself were under occupations of Portuguese
and English at various times.
After the disaster at Balakot Maulana Imamuddin Bangali came back to
his home in Noakhali and continued reforming activities there. One
important khalifa of Imamuddin was Maulana Akram ad-Din Miyaji,
grandfather of Hafezzi Hujur.
Hafezzi Hujur's performance in the 1978 presidential election showed
how insignificant the followers of some of the highly vocal
politicians of Bangladesh were numerically. The movement lost
political clout when during the Iran-Iraq war Arab money serving
interests started circulating among idiot mollahs and greedy pirs of
Bangladesh. When a section attended a Islamic Conference in Iran,
those interested in sectarian division bolted out with the simple-
Hafezzi Hujur was also a student and khalifa of Maulana Mahmud Hasan.
During the anti-colonial movement, which became Pakistan Movement,
several Hindustani Maulanas influenced their Bengali students
Maulana Mahmud Hasan known as Sheikhul Hind was most famous of them.
His father was a government inspector of madrasas. Mahmud Hasan
started his collision course with the government when the pro-British
mollahs of Deoband fearing Christian tortures declared the famous
convert Maulana Ubaidullah Sindhi an infidel for his political views
and Mahmud Hasan supported Ubaidullah.
Later Mahmud Hasan refused to sign a fatwa condemning Turkey for its
participation in World War I against Britain. After that Maulana
Ubaidullah Sindhi went to Kabul and Sheikhul Hind went to Mecca to
seek help for the anti-colonial movement. The Sharif of Mecca handed
the Sheikh over to his British master in 1916 and the Reshmi Rumal
Conspiracy was discovered. The English jailed the Sheikh in Malta.
Early 1916 a Provisional Government of India was set up in Kabul with
Raja Mahendra Pratap as President, Barakatullah of Bhopal as Prime
Minister, both belonging to the Indian National Party of Berlin, and
Ubaidullah Sindhi as Minister for India. Mahmud Hasan was allowed to
return to India in 1920.
He then joined Gandhi in the NCO-Khilafat Movement. However like many
released Muslims he died soon. About the Provisional Government of
India set up in Kabul in 1916 see "Pan-Islam and the Making of the
Early Indian Muslim Socialists" by K. H. Ansari in Modern Asian
Studies, 20, 3 (1986) pp.509-537.
Some Bengali Muslims were with thousands of Indian Muslims who
to immigrate to Afghanistan in 1920. Maniruzzaman Islamabadi
this immigration. In Kanchagari massacre unknown number of Muhajirs
Afghanistan were killed by the British-Indian military. This made
Rebel Poet Nazrul to write the article "Muhajireen Hatyar Janya Dayee
Ke" in the Nabajug. Colonial British government replied by forfeiting
the bond of the paper (August-September) on some pretext. It is
possible that there were some Bengali Mujahids among the small group
of so-called Indian Wahabi fighters who were continuing their arms
struggle till at least 1915 in Afghanistan's border with British-
It was possibly not an as idiotic fight as we see when stupid
harmed their own cause by doing something as if they were being
manipulated by their enemy through agents hidden among the top
leaders. Still the reported dictum of the Messenger of God صلی ا لله
علیه وسلم that "war is nothing but diplomacy" as well as the outreach
by which he collected people with various expertise through physical
efforts and prayers was not clearly followed. Nor they took notices
and advantages of what was pointed out in the Noble Koran that their
enemies are fighting among themselves. Thus being blind and fixed in
the inherited faulty interpretations of traditional beliefs they did
not see the ample opportunities offered by geo-political
circumstances, while few that were intelligent got trapped in the
of preparedness necessary to meet an urgent challenge.
How the corrupt and ease-loving elite destroyed the education system
can be seen from Aurangzeb's failure to convince his chief minister
that a navy can be built in the Portuguse style. Soon the Marathas
built a stronger and more modernized navy than what Aurangzeb could
build with imperial resources.
Bengali Mujahids and Muhajirs who went to Afghanistan were betrayed
the Amirs of Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. Some ended up in Tashkent.
Finally Marxist M. N. Roy, who possibly had some connection with the
Anglican church and the Labour Party, came into disagreement with
Islamist Abdur Rab Peshawari and the Muslims became disappointed.
The first group of Bengali Muslim leftist revolutionaries were
recruited from these refugees. They and those who got inspiration
directly from them were different from later leftists born out of
direct Christian missionary influence and schooling. These later
group, it appears, served missionary interest posing as Communists
experts of Russia-China affair, thus foiling Muslim efforts to
a balanced foreign policy during the Cold War. In the name of
radicalizing the society they made the society rude, brutish and
violent. By toying with the established social norms and etiquette
introducing alien innovations they confused the mode by which people
used to express their appreciation of each other and thus came
together to form a happy and harmonious society.
Some Christian missionaries, confident on the dependence of Soviet
Chinese understanding of Islam on Christian missionary scholarship,
even declared that the final blow to Islam would come from Communism
and were gleefully awaiting it. However the unexpected Iranian
Revolution started, and the restless Christians used the Afghan
Mujahids and Arab oil production to give the final blow to the
In Bangladesh Christian missionaries became restless at the growth of
Pakistan Movement and against Wavell and Churchill who did not listen
to them. Pakistan Movement with its original meaning was more popular
in Bangladesh and among Paktons than in Punjab and Sindh. Finally
the help of the Christian missionaries the Labour Party defeated
Churchill. They had Wavell dismissed and replaced by Mountbatten.
the Leader of the Opposition questioned Attlee insistently on the
reasons for the termination of Wavell's viceroyalty (Feb 21, 1947) he
"refused to give way in the face of persistent questioning by Mr.
Churchill (Attlee to Lascelles)." The Archbishop of Canterbury gave a
speech in the House of Lords supporting Attlee's policy on British
India and opposing a motion by the Conservatives which was then
withdrawn (26 Feb, 1947 or before).
Turnbull while commenting on a question by Prime Minister Attlee
some rule that would prevent Wavell making any public statement on
dismissal from viceroyalty compared it with Curzon's resignation
(Minutes by Turnbull and Sir D. Monteath dated 21 Feb, 1947, p782
9, "The Transfer of Power," ed. by Nicholas Mansergh and et. al.).
One can also suspect that Christian missionaries were behind the
peasant and labor movements that were led by Communists and that
popped up urgently in various parts of Bangladesh in the middle of
Pakistan Movement. Had these movements were there ten or twenty years
earlier, Pakistan Movement could not get chance to grow that much in
Bangladesh during 1940's. When during the First Governors Conference
(16 April, 1947), Tyson mentioned the suggestion of the Governor of
Bengal that the Central Government declare the Communists illegal,
Mountbatten disagreed. Mountbatten said that Russia is not providing
funds for their activities (P276, vol.10, Transfer of Power). Only
idiot followers of the corrupt Pakistani elite who formed the other
fang of the two-prong pliers technique for keeping the Muslims under
subjugation did not see the source of fund.
One of the young Bengali Muslim leftist revolutionaries was poet
Benazir Ahmad. He was arrested by the colonial police 20 or 22 times.
Yet he was a charming person who had tremendous feelings for his
friends. In 1925 he formed the secret Azad Party with Fazlul Haq
Shelbarshi. Shelbarshi, who did not have a family, spent his old days
in Benazir Ahmad's home. Another friend Farrukh Ahmad is buried in
yard of Benzair Ahmad's house. Farrukh, though an well-known modern
Bengali poet and a much-loved person, died in poverty for his
for Islam during the government of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. On his
Poet Al Mahmud composed the poem The Black Jackal in the Tomb of
Farrukh Ahmad was a disciple of Sufi Professor Abdul Khaleq who was a
disciple of the Pir of Furfura. Rebel Poet Nazrul Islam also
frequented Abdul Khaleq before Nazrul became silent. It is an irony
that the "Islam Darshan (1920-1926)," the mouthpiece of the Anjumane
Wa?ezeene Bangala founded by the Pir of the Furfura Shareef, was the
most vigorous anti-Nazrul magazine published by a Bengali Muslim
group. Ostensibly it was because of the pseudo-paganism in Nazrul's
poems. In reality the situation must be a complex one as the Pir of
the Furfura maintained contact with the colonial government whereas
Rebel Poet Nazrul composed revolutionary poems and songs.
In 1943 Benazir Ahmed, who recently left the party of M.N. Roy,
a supporter of Abul Hashim's Islamic Socialist Movement. At that time
Abul Hashim was an important leader of the Bengal Muslim League and
became its General Secretary in November. Also Suhrawardy became the
minister in charge of civil supply. Suddenly after the devastating
famine political conditions became less hostile to Bengali Muslims,
and opportunities became available to young men. In 1943 Benazir
joined grain and molasses business with a Marwari. He used to visit
Arakan for rice. During the war local officers of the British Indian
government used Benazir Ahmad to organize the Rohinga Mujahiduns to
create an independent country to combat the Japanese. About the same
time Maulana Maniruzzaman Islamabadi organized a network of INA
supporters from Akyab in Myanmar to Calcutta with Japanese help
although he was at that time about 70 years old. Maulana Maniruzzaman
Islamabadi went to Myanmar in disguise to meet Subash Bose.
While revolutionaries perished in colonial persecution moderate such
as Keramat Ali did not achieve much. After the calamities following
1757 there was a vacuum in the Islamic education in Bengal. The need
and prestige for Urdu and Hindustani preachers, and students studying
in Hindustani madrasas increased. People of the following category
were founding fathers of modern Bangladeshi society though they
to transmit their religious vision and mission to any young man. At
this point five modern leaders who bridged modern training and
traditional history outshine others.
Maulana Ubaiudullah al Obaidi us-Suhrawardy (1834-1885) founded the
Dhaka Aliya Madrasa in 1874 (December 16). He was its lifelong
superintendant. It was founded with a grant from Mohsin fund obtained
with the help of Nawab Abdul Latif and was possibly called Mohsenia
Madrasa at that time. He motivated a group of his Bengali students to
work for the spread of Education in Bengal. Ubaidullah was the
maternal grandfather and brother of the paternal grandfather of
Bengali politician Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy. Ubaidullah's father
Maulana Aminuddin Suhrawardy (d.1848), a Pir, lived in Mednipur and
buried in Hughli. Aminuddin's father Shah Ruknuddin was a descendant
of a Sufi whose story resembles that of Khondkar Shah Ala of Pingla
(Mednipur). Adi Brahma samaj published an English translation of the
Tohfat of Raja Rammohun Rai by Obaidullah el Obaide in 1884.
Ubaiudullah's eldest daughter Khujesta Akhtar Banu was Huseyn Shaheed
Suhrawardy's mother. Ubaidullah's second daughter was the mother of
the wife of Abul Hashim. Ubaidullah's son Sir Abdullah al Mamun
(1882-1935) published "The Sayings of Muhammad." According to the
preface by Sir Hassan Suhrawardy he was the first to obtain the Ph.D.
degree of the Calcutta University and he was the founder and the
secretary of the Pan-Islamic Society of London.
Maniruzzaman Islamabadi became the founding principal of a madrasa in
Rangpur in 1895 after turning down a teaching position from the
government controlled Hughli Madrasa from which he graduated in 1893.
During this time he traveled in various parts of North Bengal and
Assam as a follower of Keramat Ali. However being a revolutionary at
heart he got involved in anti-colonial movement. After documents and
arms of INA were discovered at Sitakunda Islamabadi was arrested in
1944 along with his associates. Islamabadi was first sent to Calcutta
then to Lahore Central Jail where he spent 10 months. These people
underwent all possible physical tortures. Islamabadi's health did not
recover after these tortures.
Maulana Bhasani was a friend and disciple of Allama Azad Subhani of
Kanpore (India). Hindustani Ulema were divided on the Pakistan issue.
Azad Subhani supported the creation of Pakistan. In 1945 (October
20-29) he presided over the conference in Kolkata Muhammad Ali Park
when the Alims supporting Pakistan broke away from Jamiyat-e Ulema-e
Hind and formed Jamiyat-e Ulema-e Islam.
Following a suggestion of Maulana Azad Subhani Bhasani gave up
a paijama and replaced it with a lungi, a casual dress which became
the principal dress for the most people of Bangladesh after it, once
the richest country in the world, sank into abysmal poverty during
colonial exploitation. In 1935 Bhasani met seventeen Alims who were
also politicians from different parts of the subcontinent at Amruha.
They included Maulana Ubaidullah Sindhi, Hasrat Mohani and
Maniruzzaman Islamabadi. Bhasani says in his "Rabubiater Bhumika"
written in 1974 (April):
Allama said, "Then promise today that whatever strategy you take in
the political life you will continue to struggle with the principal
aim of establishing the Rule of the Lord. ..." I said, "Yes I
whatever I do in politics I shall not deviate my aim from the Rule of
the Lord." Bhasani remembered the decision of the seventeen Alims
in 1946 in Dhubri Allama Azad Subhani asked him to promise again in
the name of the Kaba.
Abul Hashim (1905-1974) and Abul Dewan Muhammad Azraf (1908-1999)
also influenced by Allama Azad Subhani's idea of Rabbaniat. Abul
Hashim came to East Bengal after the Hindu rioters burned his house
Burdwan in 1950.
On February 20, 1952 Abul Hashim presided the meeting of the All
Committee of Action formed for making Bengali a State Language of
Pakistan. In this meeting it was decided that the order under section
144 prohibiting demonstration should not be violated the next day.
Student did not abide by the decision.
After people were killed by police and whole Bangladesh became
agitated Abul Hashim along with few other Bengali politicians and
student activists were arrested. This was an example how gangs with
agendas can create and take control of popular movements to advance
their hidden agendas derailing the proper spirit. At present that
spirit is sandwiched between what they call Bhalobasa Dibas (Love
February 14) and what a Faqir called Drain Diyaa Jaamaayer Laash
Karaar Dibas (February 26). Abul Hashim was arrested on 25th
1952 and was kept in various jails without trial till June, 1953. In
1954 Abul Hashim formed Khilafat-e-Rabbani Party. He was its
In 1958 Dewan Azraf and couple of others collaborated to found the
Darul Ulum Islamic Academy which started in 1958/1959. During this
time pro-American Pakistani government was forced to use Islamic
elements to combat communism. On the other hand frustration with the
west about India also led to vigorous discussions on improving
relation with China which was initiated by Suhrawardy using the
Islamic socialists. 1961 Government of Pakistan took control of Darul
Ulum Islamic Academy and appointed Abul Hashim as its president. The
name of the organization is changed to Islamic Academy, Dhaka. Now it
is called Islamic Foundation of Bangladesh.
Dewan Azraf wrote a book on Hazrat Abu Dharr Gifari (RA) and was the
principal of the Abu Jarr Gifari College Dhaka. Because of Abu
outspoken criticism of accumulation wealth under private ownership
Islamic socialists are usually fond of this Companion of
the Messenger of God صلی ا لله علیه وسلم.
Shias considered Hazrat Abu Dharr Gifari as a Shia because of his
criticism of Muawiya, father of cursed Yazid and at that time the
governor of Syria. The removal by the third Caliph Hazrat Usman
656CE) of laws initiated by the second Caliph Hazrat Umar (RA)
restricting personal consumption, and the growth of disparity in
lifestyle resulting from it annoyed some Companions belonging to the
Fuqara (the Poor). But it was Muawiya's activities in Syria which Abu
Dharr found most dangerous. Under pressure from the corrupt elements
that gathered around Hazrat Usman because their worldly talent and
skill were being used in the rapid development of the state, Hazrat
Abu Dharr was then exiled in the desert where he died soon. His
prediction of the dire consequence of the change of lifestyle soon
came true. At present idiot Pakistanis on foreign pay-roll are
Shias in Pakistan to nurture their kafir-assisted sham Islamic
Dewan Azraf was connected with the Bengali Language Movement and
suffered for it at the hand of Pakistanis. In 1948 he was the editor
of Nao Belal published from Sylhet and in 1949 he was elected
president of the Tamaddun Majlis. Tamaddun Majlis was founded by Abul
Kasem. Worrying about the Pakistani policy towards Bangladesh Abul
Kasem decided to demand Bengali as a National Language of Pakistan
from September, 1947 (p219, Bhasha Andolon Prasanga: Katipay Dalil,
Vol 2, by Badruddin Umar,1985). Earlier like Muhammad Asad and Jinnah
Abul Kasem also felt the need of clearly formulating the Islamic
principles that could be readily referenced as a guide for Pakistan.
Now he devoted his time in popularizing the demand for declaring
Bengali as a National Language of Pakistan. Ordinary people who were
indifferent to the "Jabaaner Laraai", could no longer hold their
feelings of being like foreigners in their own country after the
killings of February, 1952.
Abul Kasem has been criticized for his efforts to keep the Language
Movement free from meddling by potential Indian agents and
We had our first exposure to modern science and philosophy through
Bengali books written by Abul Kasem while some of our teachers from
English medium schools taunted us for reading Abul Kasem's book. If
the spirit of the terminology Abul Kasem advocated was understood and
was allowed to flourish science would have become part of the culture
of Bangladesh by now.
We take a much stronger view in this respect than Abul Kasem. We are
for adopting more Deshi and Prakrit words and rejuvenating words
in local dialects for the use in books on science and philosophy.
If a Bangladeshi student learns of an acid through the Bengali word
tak and an alkali through the Bengali word titaa, he can immediately
starts to classify the household chemicals. Acid as amla and alkali
khaar only burden him with another pair of "foreign" words, and made
alchemy and properties of matter foreign sciences without any basis
Adopted from "The Land of Five Masters"